Your products have such short shelf-life, why?                                                 Because they are Fresh and Filler free! We do not add the chemicals, additives and fillers to unnaturally extend a product's shelf life – just because, at best, these fillers offer no benefits to the skin. And, at worst, who knows what they do when they seep into the skin. These long shelf lives are what consumers are used to - and just because "it's always been that way" is the worst reason for doing something. In fact, long shelf lives is solely the result of necessity by the few Large bureaucratic corporations that have dominated the market for eons: having big advertising budgets, big warehouses – thus it takes them a lot of time to get a product from creation to the consumer -they need the time and thus, made the consumer accept putting something on your Face (!) that is a year+ old. For instance, a 1980 article by David Pope in Drug and Cosmetic Industry suggested a minimum shelf life of 18 to 24 months "to maximize cost efficiency in warehousing, distribution, and marketing." As a small, nimble company operating on a JIT-inventory basis, we do not need to add chemicals to our products as they ship directly from us. They are not sitting in a warehouse waiting for a department store to place an order for them, then sitting on a shelf until someone buys. We also think we would not want to put anything on our skin that has a year+ shelf life – knowing the natural process for organic material of Oxidation is only delayed by the chemicals added to these products. We let our products live their useful, natural life all on their lonesome without us interfering by pouring in copious amounts of chemicals to extend their life! MORE INFO»

Why don't use Palm Oil or Coconut Oil I have heard these are great for the skin and in most products?
Palm oil
is a very common ingredient in cosmetic products because of its cheap. It is a feedstock for biofuel and poses many environmental problems. It's the largest driver of Indonesian deforestation, which destroys habitat and contributes to climate change - this is why we will not use it in our products. Coconut oil is a known skin irritant: it causes dryness. But, it's one of the cheapest oils so it's in most topicals – money talks – thus a lot of $s have been poured into promoting Coconut oil for skin care. Fifteen years ago, no one used coconut oil in their products, but with the onset of the consumer market wanting more "natural" ingredients in products, this cheap oil was substituted for chemical-based ingredients. And then the Big companies began publishing information about how great it was for the skin – 15 years ago it was on every list of irritating ingredients. Now it's hard to find that information, but we remember!

Are your products hypoallergenic, non-comedogenic, natural?
Who knows! The terms are gibberish – These have been defined by the FDA as Marketing Terms – meaning there are no tests or requirements to meet to label as such. Thus they are meaningless. They are used to sell products to those who do not realise these terms are the same thing as screaming " will take ten years off your face." AKA it's gibberish, not science. In fact, Marketing Terms, with no Official Standards, nor criteria to meet, per the FDA are as follows:

Non-comedogenic*: supposedly these products so labelled do not contain common pore-clogging ingredients that could lead to acne
Fragrance-free*: Products so labelled may still contain small amounts of fragrances to mask the fatty odour of soap or other unpleasant odours
Hypoallergenic*: Cosmetics that are less likely to cause allergic reactions

"There are no Federal standards or definitions that govern the use of the term "hypoallergenic." The term means whatever a particular company wants it to mean. Manufacturers of cosmetics labelled as hypoallergenic are not required to submit substantiation of their hypoallergenic claims to FDA. The term "hypoallergenic" may have considerable market value in promoting cosmetic products to consumers on a retail basis, but dermatologists say it has very little meaning." MORE INFO»

Why are your products not 100% Organic.
Because we often have Deionized water in our product formulations. Water is not certified as "organic" under the National Organic Program (and per the FDA). Water is a chemical substance used in the production of agricultural products- but is not itself an agricultural product. If we did not use deionized water, we could get close to 100% organic, but not fully as we use botanicals and ingredients based on efficacy over and above being organic. MORE INFO»

Do you use animal-based ingredients or test on animals?
No & No. It's simply revolting to us and produces a gag-reflex: No emu oil or lanolin, here! We do use a by-product of bees - New Zealand Manuka Honey - UMF certified by the government of New Zealand who enforces strict sustainability requirements in harvesting - ensuring colony wellbeing.

Do you use nanoparticles?
No. Nano-Technology is the engineering of a particle on an extremely tiny scale: between 50,000 and 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. On paper the potential is captivating. Tiny particles can pass through the body without being digested, and vitamins are more easily absorbed. However, this capability is also causing some concern from scientist questioning the new abilities and unknown risks to human health. "The human body hasn't ever encountered nanoparticles before," says Ronnie Cummins, national director of the Organic Consumer Association (OCA). In the UK> organic certification is refused for any foods that contain engineered particles smaller than 125 nanometers. Here in the USA, the OCA is petitioning the FDA to enforce similar restrictions. Still, in the USA cosmetic companies are jumping on the bandwagon and the Environmental Working Group (EWG) has identified more than 9,500 personal care products that contain nanoparticles: with zinc oxide based sunscreens leading the charge. Companies are no currently required to indicate nanoparticles on labels. If your sunscreen is invisible on your skin, it probably contains nano-scale zinc or titanium.

"The biological effects of nanoparticles may be different than those of larger sized particles; therefore, it is crucial to develop appropriate toxicity testing approaches for the safety assessment of nanoparticles . . . " MORE INFO»

Did your product ingredient list change?
At times it does - we are forward-thinking: as new research comes out, or a better derivative or source, for an ingredient, becomes available, we adapt
, so sometimes a product formulation is improved As a nimble, hardworking company operating on a JIT-inventory basis we can react dynamically to new information - unlike the big corporations that have already invested PR/Advertising $s into a product they have on the market – ergo, they are tied by a ball-n-chain to make whatever they promoted work – regardless of new information or research publications. Bottom line we are dynamic and always looking to improve - and improving means embracing change.

General Skin Care information: 
Scientists recognise that destructive molecules called free radicals cause and contribute to ageing and age-related conditions. Many of these free radicals, however, can be controlled by a group of beneficial nutrients called antioxidants. Antioxidants are used in skin care products to neutralise free radicals before they ravage the skin. Antioxidants remove the free radicals that cells produce. Free radicals have been associated with skin cancer and premature skin ageing due to sun exposure. Some experts believe antioxidants are the most vital weapons in the fight against ageing. Most of the damage of our skin is caused by a free-radical assault from UV rays, pollution and smoke. Free radicals then turn the oils of our skin rancid, which damages the collagen. Free radical scavengers hinder the oxidising process in the skin and promote soft and supple skin. Topical products containing an antioxidant in effect, defend the skin, help in reducing scars and promote healing. Collagen is the protein fibres that serve as the building blocks of our skin and antioxidants assist in protecting and promoting the building blocks of collagen.



Ingredient Information

Acai Berry (Euterpe oleracea) fruit is slightly larger than a blueberry, with a similar colour has recently been discovered outside the rainforest as a "superfood: a nutritious bundle of amino acids, fibre, essential fatty acids; and contains more of the highly coveted antioxidants than either red wine or blueberries. One of the most nutritious and powerful anti-ageing foods in the world. Aáai is abundant anthocyanidins powerful antioxidants that prevent destructive free radical damage to connective tissue, helps to repair and maintain the integrity of blood vessel walls and limit the effects of premature ageing. Rich in essential fatty acids, Omega 3,6,&9 and a source of Phytosterols.

Alma Berry (Emblica officinalis) wild and gathered in the foothills of the Himalayan regions of Asia. Amla berries have the highest amount of naturally occurring vitamin C of any ripe fruit in the world. Numerous studies conducted on Amla fruit suggest that it has antiviral properties and also functions as an antibacterial and antifungal.

Aloe Vera [Aloe barbadensis-Certified Organic] is one of the oldest medicinal plants used by ancient Egyptians and Native Americans, it has remarkable healing abilities. It draws and holds oxygen to the skin, masking it. An effective cellular renewal ingredient with anti-inflammatory and moisturising properties. With a composition similar to human blood plasma and seawater with a pH the same as the human skin it is extremely soothing and protecting. An added plus is its natural astringent ability.

Bio-Enhanced®, Stabilized R-Lipoic Acid provides Superior Absorption Over Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Unstabilized RLA. Most skincare products on the market use Alpha-Lipoic Acid meaning it contains a 50/50 mixture of natural (R-Lipoic) and unnatural (S-Lipoic) Lipoic Acid. The S-Lipoic Acid form, which is not found anywhere in nature, is a byproduct of chemical synthesis. Research indicates that not only does the human body have difficulty absorbing this unnatural version, it may inhibit an essential property of the R-Lipoic Acid form. The "R" form (R-Lipoic) is considered the "eutomer" (the biologically superior form) of Alpha Lipoic Acid since it is identical to that produced by the body. Research indicates R-Lipoic Acid is responsible for most of the beneficial effects attributed to ALA. It is a natural anti-oxidant and known as "the universal antioxidant" because it helps to regenerate other essential antioxidants like Vitamin C and E. It is both fat and water soluble and absorbs into to the skin within thirty minutes, penetrating all parts of the skin. Its antioxidant properties help healthy cells from getting damaged by free radicals. It is known to diminish fine lines and wrinkles and to reduce pore size and puffy eyes. our IG The Na R-Lipoic form we use may be up to 10 times more effective than other forms of lipoic acid and has been called the "mitochondrial antioxidant" because it is a key component of mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, which may help to slow the natural ageing process in animals

Vitamin C (Ascorbyl Palmitate/Palmitic acid ester – Vitamin C) a natural antioxidant derived from Vitamin C and Palm oil. We do not use this form as it is syndetic, and contains Palm oil. Plus our innovative packaging allow for us to use L-absorbed Acid, L-ascorbic acidly is sensitive to formulary concerns, including concentration as well as the pH level needed for it to remain stable, thus most topicals containing Vitamin C in this form are ineffective solely because they arrive premixed. We avoid that issue that all other companies face as in our Pure C & Sea Serum, we use L-ascorbic acid as there is no stability issue given when the consumer gets the product, they add the Vitamin C powder to the premix base, thus ensuring its effectiveness.

Chamomile [Matricaria chamomilla] is a traditional home remedy native to Europe and north-west Asia, and now grows in North America. The herb has a calming effect and has pronounced anti-inflammatory activity, promotes wound healing, combats certain bacteria on the skin, and has a mild tranquillizing effect. Clinical trials of a Chamomile cream have confirmed its ability to relieve skin inflammations as effectively as certain steroid creams.

Cold Pressed – our Jojoba & Olive oils are cold-pressed. This is a method of mechanical extraction where heat is reduced and minimised throughout the batching of the raw material. This helps the oil maintain its original state, constituents, and depth. Temperatures are rigorously controlled to ensure that it does not exceed 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit. Although not a practical method of extraction for all vegetable oils on the market it is highly regarded as the extraction method of choice for the highest quality. Note we do not use coconut oil in any of our products: it's simply a cheap and chincy ingredient that irritates the skin.

Cranberry Seed Extract [Vaccinium macrocarpon Certified Organic source – USA]. The extract of the cranberry fruit. Natural components known as proanthocyanidins are responsible for this extract's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Deionized Water Origin: Bull Run Watershed, Portland, OR USA (One of the purest water sources found in the United States).The steps for purifying this water are:

  • Pre-filtration, the incoming water is passed through two 5u (micron) filters to remove most of the undissolved solid matter which may be present in the supply system, i.e. silica.
  • Ultra-violet light is then employed to destroy any bacteria that escape the chlorine which the water company adds to make the water safe to drink.
  • The water then travels through a carbon filter bed which removes the cholrine and the organic impurities which may remain from the first two steps.
  • The next two steps are the actual deionizing filters which remove all of the ions present, both positive and negative charged particles, i.e. Sodium, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium and others.
  • The water then goes through two more filters each 0.2u (microns) which have the capacity to remove any remaining particles leaving the water in an ultra-pure condition for the use in manufacturing high quality products.
  • As a final step the water passes through a purity meter which records the conductivity of the water and assures that the system is working properly. Ultra-pure water is a poor conductor of electrical current so the higher the resistance reading the purer the water. Our water consistently reads 20,000,000 ohms which is about the theoretical maximum for ultra-pure water. Triple distilled water typically only reads about 3,000,000 ohms as a comparison.

Natural Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) the body's principal fat-soluble antioxidant has only recently been used as a topical antioxidant. There are numerous derivatives of Vitamin E. Those with 'dl' in the name are synthetic versions and are much cheaper. Those with 'd-alpha' denote the natural form, which the body metabolises better than the synthetic version. Of all of the various forms, PureDeming products use the most Potent form of Vitamin E: d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (tocopherols), which is already in active form and more effective for topical use. Vitamin E has different activeness levels (IU's) depending on how it was derived. Our form of Vitamin E has a conversion of 1305 IU per gram, ensuring a powerful, potent form of Vitamin E that is more easily able to penetrate the epidermis than those products using lower activity forms of Vitamin E. When on the skin this antioxidant springs into action protecting the cells by deactivating or destroying damaging free radicals. Vitamin E acts to re-hydrate the skin, and even out the skin tone.

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L) makes its way into a lot of cosmetic applications, primarily because the bioflavonoids in elderberries plays a very important role for  skin. The antioxidant activity, combined with its high levels of vitamin A, make elderberries perfect for preventing or lessening wrinkles, helping age spots to fade, and generally improving the glow and tone of the skin.

Farnesol (Linden Blossom (Tilia vulgaris)) known as dodecatrienol, occurs in various essential oils, most notably rose and orange blossom and wild cyclament. When applied topically it promotes the reformation of cells and thereby reduces the skin's ageing. A fatty Alcohol it is one of the components of Vitamin K and has been found to have the following effects: smoothes wrinkles, normalises sebum secretion, increases skin elasticity, increases skin tissue tension, and increases moisture-binding capabilities. Found in essential oils, vegetables, vitamin K and in the skin itself. Farnesol is a true bio-activator. The main component of Linden Blossom is farnesol.

Ferulic Acid (FA) is a substance that can be found in the seeds and leaves of most plants, especially brans such as wheat, rice, and oats. Ferulic Acid has strong antioxidant properties which contribute to its potential use. Ferulic Acid neutralises free radicals that can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes and DNA. Ferulic Acid also has the ability to block cells from ultraviolet light damage. The addition of Ferulic acid (approved as a UV filter in Japan) in our Pure C & Sea Serum helps to protect against photoaging and skin cancer (Ferulic acid is the predominant active in polypodium leucotomies, the main ingredient in oral sun protection pills on the market).

Grapeseed extract - we use only the red grape seed extract which is rich in the powerful plant-based antioxidants called proanthocyanidins. These antioxidants can help protect against the effects of internal and environmental stresses. Studies have indicated that grape seed extract may help ward off skin cancer due to regular exposure to the sun. The proanthocyanidins [GSPs] studied suggest that it is a powerful ingredient in the prevention of skin cancers., given UV-induced oxidative stress has been linked to the induction of skin cancers, while PGPs have a countering antioxidant activity.

Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) from the leaves of the plants dried, cured and extracted into ethyl alcohol. It reduces the puffiness around the eyes and has astringent properties due to a tannic acid content. Green tea contains compounds that have an antioxidant effect. It is thought that it has anti-cancerous effects, which have been determined by test tube but not proven in human disease prevention yet. It is thought that the active antioxidants may be able to inhibit the cancer process initiated by the sun's ultraviolet B radiation.

Glycolic Acid - an alpha hydroxy acid (AHAs) are derived from various plant sources or from milk. However, 99% of the AHAs used in cosmetics are synthetically derived. At PureDeming we use a high-quality Glycolic Acid that is 99% crystalline pure. It exfoliates skin cells by breaking down the substance in skin that holds skin cells together.

Helichrysum oil (Helichrysum (Immortelle/Helichrysum angustifolia)) a Pure natural product obtained by distillation of plant material it is used to aid in healing scars and as a boost for the development of skin cells. Helichrysum is a plant family that includes strawflower. These plant extracts also have antibacterial properties for skin.

Hydrophilic means that it has a great affinity for water. All fatty acid molecules are lipophilic and hydrophilic. The glycerin component of an oil or fat is an alcohol with three locations on its molecule where the hydrophilic molecule of the fatty acids attaches. The hydrophilic molecules are attracted to water which helps the water "wet" the surface to be cleaned, permitting the water to reach more of the surface. Without the 'wetting" assistance of the hydrophilic molecules, the product would bead up on the skin and not soak the surface.

Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (Centella asiatica) synthesised derivative of the herb that has antibacterial, anti-psoriatic, and wound-healing properties.
Hyaluronic Acid component of skin tissue that is used in high-end skin-care products as the water-binding agent of choice given its superiority over cheaper water-binding agents.

Jojoba Oil [Buxus chinensis-Certified Organic, Cold-Processed, unrefined, pH 4.2] is an emollient oil similar to other non-fragrant plant oils and is a natural moisturising factor. Pressed from the nuts of the Jojoba bush it is not really an oil but a "liquid wax" and thus, mimics the skin's surface and is a natural moisturising agent. It contains a natural source of Vitamin E, regenerates tired skin, regulates the outer protective layer and stimulates re-growth of skin cells

Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid extracted from milk. It exfoliates cells on the surface of the skin by breaking down the material that holds skin cells together.

Lipophilic means that it has a great affinity for oil. All fatty acid molecules are lipophilic and hydrophilic. The lipophilic molecules act like a magnet and are attracted to dirt and oils, they embed into the dirt and remove it.

Liquorice extract [Glycyrrhiza glabra] has an antiphlogistic effect mainly due to the content of glycyrrhetinic acid, which soothes irritation, reduces inflammation and has a bacteriostatic effect. Liquorice neutralises pollution and ground-level ozone that attack hyaluronic acid, proteins and vitamins. It is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and brightening agent.

Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium ) We get our Manuka Honey from one of the 70 beekeepers, producers and exporters that are qualified and accredited to display the UMF® mark on Manuka Honey products. We, solely, use Manuka Honey UMF® 16+ that is collected from the remote Valleys and Alps in New Zealand, where you will find the purest air, cleanest Water and most nutrient rich soil in the world today. It is the indigenous nectar and the bee that give this honey its unique properties.The honey is pure, raw, natural, un-pasteurized, and Tested and Certified at NZ Labs. Do not be mislead by companies only dislaying the TA "total active" level -even if they are in New Zealand. They have not met, nor complied with the NZ Manuka Honey Associations strict guidelines, thus they are not certified UMF. http://www.umf.org.nz/

UMF certified Manuka is one of three tea trees indigenous to both Australia and New Zealand. Manuka essential oil from The East Cape region of New Zealand has been confirmed as having the highest antimicrobial activity. There is evidence indicating that it is up to 20 times more potent than Australian tea tree oil. Manuka has long been valued for its healing properties by the Maori people – the indigenous people of "Aotearoa" (New Zealand ). The UMF standard was established to identify and set apart the type of Manuka honey which has the special UMF healing property. Honey from some plants is no more antibacterial than sugar, while Active Manuka honey with a high UMF® rating can be diluted more than 100-fold and still halt the growth of bacteria. http://www.umf.org.nz/

Olive Oil Extra Virgin (Olea europaea-Certified Organic & Kosher, cold-pressed, source – Spain, pH 3.9) has been used for centuries as an emollient for conditioning and softening the skin. Especially helpful for dry and chapped skin, it is obtained by crushing and pressing the fruit of the Olive tree. The Olive tree is native to the Mediterranean area – an important historic oil used extensively in ancient times. Highly nutritive and stable, it contains protein, minerals, vitamins and it has superior penetrating power, in addition to having acidic and antioxidant values. Olive oil is high in unsaponifiable, which is a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have a superior moisturising effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars.

Palm Oilwe do not use in our products. Palm oil — which appears in a dizzying amount of food and cosmetic products, and is a feedstock for biofuel — poses many environmental problems. It's the largest driver of Indonesian deforestation, which destroys habitat and contributes to climate change.Large areas of tropical forests and other ecosystems with high conservation values have been cleared to make room for vast monoculture oil palm plantations – destroying critical habitat for many endangered species, including rhinos, elephants and tigers. In some cases, the expansion of plantations has led to the eviction of forest-dwelling peoples.

Coconut Oilwe do not use in our products as it's the cheapest ingredient a company can use. It's so cheap that it is not promoted as drying and irritating as it is. Why – cause the big companies want you to think this cheap oil is fabulous and not the bottom of the barrel. But wait! Before you get overly excited and slather yourself head to toe in it, know this – coconut oil is also one of the highest pore-blocking oils out there. This means that coconut oil for skin may not actually be as good as you thought. In fact, on a scale of 0 – 5 (the latter being the highest), coconut oil sits at a number 4. Which is a big problem if you have acne or blemish prone skin. In layman terms, coconut oil can clog pores. Unfortunately for very dry skin and acne prone skin the results of coconut oil often skew towards breakouts and increased dryness. As stated earlier coconut oil also has basically no vitamin or mineral content. It's fats flying solo. And while coconut oil does have antioxidant compounds there are oils with much denser antioxidant loads such as tamanu.

Preservatives: Leucidal® Liquid is a natural preservative from Active Micro Technologies combining the current trends for alternative preservative systems and peptide technology. Derived from radishes fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii, a lactic acid bacteria that has traditionally been used to make kimchi, this product consists of an isolated peptide that is secreted from the bacteria during the fermentation process that has been shown to have antimicrobial benefits. Leucidal® Liquid is accepted by Ecocert as an ingredient in certified organic cosmetics. It is also on Whole Foods Acceptable Premium Preservative List. Optiphen™ Plus a globally approved preservative in the Optiphen family developed as an alternative for personal care formulations requiring a paraben and formaldehyde-free preservative system, particularly within lower pH systems. Leucidal Liquid PT is a probiotic-based ingredient created by the fermentation of Lactobacillus in a defined growth medium and at specific conditions. Lactobacillus is one of the species of microorganisms used to produce fermented products such as sauerkraut and kimchi, a Korean dietary staple from cabbage. During the fermentation process, in the presence of both standard growth media components and undecylenic acid derived from castor beans, the pH and oxygen levels for Lactobacillus are pushed to their limits to induce the production of secondary metabolites as a response to stress. These synergistically active compounds are capable of providing conditioning benefits. An additional growth characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria family is the production of novel antimicrobial peptides. In their natural environment, these antimicrobial peptides provide a competitive advantage to the lactic acid bacteria against other potentially competitive organisms. Aspen Bark Extract which acts as a natural preservative. :)

Polyphenols are phytochemicals, meaning compounds found abundantly in natural plant food sources that have antioxidant properties.

pH Level is an acid-alkaline measurement. All things have a pH level – the air, water, soil, soap, your skin, and so on. The pH level is a number scale that identifies whether something is neutral, acidic or alkaline. The pH scale works on a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. Acids measure less than 7 and alkaline substances measure greater than 7. Healthy skin ranges from pH 3 to 5.5.

Pomegranate extract (Ellagic Acid) was one of the first known medicines. A native plant of North Africa it was used in ancient times by the Greeks and Egyptians to heal many ailments. Pomegranate extract has demonstrated a variety of beneficial functions including antioxidant and anti-viral activity. A published university study indicates pomegranate extract could destroy several viruses nearly on contact. In addition, it has been proven to boost sun protection topically and internally. Topical application has been documented to eliminate spots and freckles on the face while increasing the glow of complexion thus making the skin soft and lustrous. Packed with powerful polyphenols even more powerful than those found in green tea, it is a Potent antioxidant.

Salicylic acid a beta-Hydroxy acid {BHA}. Salicylic Acid resides in the heart of Willow

Bark and Sweet Birch trees pH 2.5.

Sea Buckthorn Berry is from Finland and one single berry contains 15 times more vitamin C than an orange. It offers one of the widest ranges of nutrients from a single source found on earth, including antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, omega fatty acids, carotenoids, and more. This small but powerful berry is loaded with almost 200 bio-active nutrients that can protect against heart disease, cancer, natural ageing symptoms, sun damage, and more. Omega-7 fatty acids are fundamental building blocks of healthy skin and mucous membranes. Sea-buckthorn contains the highest amounts of omega-7 on earth. Because of its high omega-7 and vitamin A content, the oil extracted from this berry is the ultimate tissue healer.

Shea Butter A plant lipid that is used as an emollient in cosmetics

Sodium Hydroxide a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the pH of a product.

Sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus-Certified Organic & Kosher, Source – Sweden, pH 4.0]) obtained from the milling of the seeds from the sunflower. It is rich in both Vitamins A and E. Sunflower oil is very high in essential fatty acids and helps to moisturise, regenerate and condition the skin. Good for mature, sensitive and dry, damaged skin. Sunflower oil abilities to create a healthy skin lipid barrier function. In testing, a single application of sunflower seed oil significantly accelerates skin barrier recovery within 1 h; the effect was sustained 5 h after application. In contrast, the other vegetable oils tested (soybean oils) all significantly delayed recovery of barrier function compared with control or Aquaphor treated skin. Data suggest that topical application of linoleate-enriched oil such as sunflower seed oil might enhance skin barrier function and improve outcome in neonates with compromised barrier function.

Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) From Australia and Organic Certified.

Vegetable Glycerin certified organic vegetable glycerine -  derived from soy

Vitamin A an antioxidant.

Vitamin B5 [pantothenic acid] effective for hydration and wound healing.

Vitamin D An antioxidant formed in the skin by sunlight.

Deionized water is water that has had almost all of its mineral ions removed. Deionization is a process that uses specially manufactured ion-exchange resins, which exchange hydrogen and hydroxide ions for dissolved minerals and then recombine to form water. Because most non-particulate water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water. Ours is sourced from the Bull Run Watershed, Portland, OR USA (One of the purest water sources found in the United States).

Vegetable Glycerin (also called glycerol) is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. The type we use is from the fermentation of sugars. It can also be synthetically manufactured.

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) active ingredients are Tannins, found in wild scrub twigs. With potent antioxidant properties, it has long been used in Native American culture as a local anaesthetic and anti-inflammatory. It tightens pores and relieves irritated skin.

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide derived from non-GMO fermented corn sweeteners. Often used in the food industry to thicken and stabilise products. It can be added to thicken a cosmetic product. It is difficult to work with since it does not fully dissolve in water.